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E-Book Radiology - Brain CT Scans in Clinical Practice

E-book Kedokteran, E-book Radiology, E-book Radiotherapy

E-Book Radiology - Brain CT Scans in Clinical Practice

1 Introduction to the Basics of Brain CT Scan 1
Three Basic Densities or Different Shades of Grey 1
The Density of Blood Changes with Time! 4
Symmetry–Mirror Image 5
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Spaces – The Compass of Brain CT Scan 8
Identifying Abnormalities in the CSF Spaces 9
Brain Swelling 11
Brain Tumours 12
Extra Axial and Intra Axial Lesions 12
Basic Anatomy of the Brain Surface 14

2 Head Injury 23
Introduction – Intracranial Haematomas 23
Acute, Subacute and Chronic Subdural Haematomas 24
The Brain Coverings (Meninges) and the Subarachnoid Space 25
The Parts of the Skull and Naming of Haematomas 27
The Base of the Skull 30
The 5Ss of Any Haematoma! 32
The First S Stands for Size 32
The Second S Therefore Stands for Symptoms and Signs 32
The Third S Stands for Shifts and Serious Consequences 34
The Fourth S Stands for Side 34
The 5th S stands for the Site of the Haematoma 35

3 Brain Haemorrhage and Infarction – Stroke 43
Subarachnoid Haemorrhage 43
First Clue in SAH Is the Clinical History 46
Where to Look for SAH – Usual Locations 49
Associated Features or Complications: The H.I.G.H of SAH 52
Epilogue on CT Scan for SAH 59
Spontaneous Intracerebral Haematoma 59
Usual Locations and Aetiology 61
Basic CT Scan Internal Landmarks 62
Ischemic Stroke (Cerebral Infarction) 66
T∼ Stands for the Territory – the Vascular Territory 69
H∼ Stands for Hypodensity 69
O∼ Stands for Oedema 70
S∼Stands for Swelling and Shifts 71
E∼Stands for Evolution 71

4 Hydrocephalus 73
Introduction 73
The Temporal Horns and Third Ventricle in Early Hydrocephalus 74
Effacement of the Sulci 77
Disproportionately Small Fourth Ventricle 77
The Frontal and Occipital Horns 79
Periventricular Lucencies 81
Previously Diagnosed Hydrocephalus 83
Causes of Hydrocephalus 84
Foramen of Munro – Colloid Cyst 86
Cerebral Aqueduct of Sylvius 87
Fourth Ventricle Obstruction 88

5 Tumours and Infections
Introduction 89
Mis forMass Effect 90
E is for Enhancement 91
A is for Appearance 96
L is for Location 97
Special Locations 99
Red Flags 100
6 Advanced Uses of Brain CT Scan 103
3D Renditions: Craniosynostosis 103
3D Renditions: CT Angiography 104
Subtleties! 104
Index 107

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